The Archives was established on February 11, 1940 as the State Archives of Vileika
In the Second World War, during the German occupation of Belarus, the Archives did not work; the documents were exported to Russia. In July 1944, the Archives resumed its work in the town of Vileika.
In September 1944, following the renaming of the Vileika Region into the Molodechno Region, the State Archives of Vileika Region was renamed as the State Archives of Molodechno Region, and it was moved to the town of Molodechno.
In January 1960, with the abolition of the Molodechno Region, the State Archives of Molodechno Region was reorganized as the Branch of the State Archives of Minsk Region in Molodechno. The Archives began to acquire records created by the institutions located in the Vileika, Volozhin, Molodechno and Miadel districts of the Minsk region. On November 11, 1963 the Archives consolidated the holdings of the state district archives that had been abolished by the time.
On September 20, 1996 the Archives received its present name of the Zonal State Archives in Molodechno.