The Minsk Regional Archives was established in July 1938.
In the Second World War, during the German occupation of Belarus (from mid-1941 to mid-1944) the Archives did not function.
In 1963 the prerevolutionary records were transferred to the Central State Historical Archives of the Belarusian Soviet Socialist Republic (BSSR).
In 1996 the Archives acquired over 600 000 files from the former archives of the Minsk Region Committee of the Communist Party of Belarus previously held at the National Archives of the Republic of Belarus.
In June 2001 the Archives assumed its present name of the State Archives of Minsk Region.