The Archives was established in Minsk on May 28, 1927 as the Central Archives of the October Revolution of the Belarusian Soviet Socialist Republic (BSSR). In 1930, the archives were moved from Minsk to the city of Mogilev.
In July 1938, the Central Archives of the October Revolution of the BSSR was reorganized as the Central State Archives of the October Revolution and Socialist Construction of the BSSR.
In 1941, following the German invasion of Belarus the Archives stopped work and resumed its activity in January 1944 in the city of Gomel. In July 1944, the Archives moved back to Minsk.
In May 1993, the Archives was renamed the Belarusian State Archives.
In June 1995, the Archives acquired a complex of records from the former Central Party Archives of the Communist Party of Belarus, and was reorganized as the National Archives of the Republic of Belarus.